Angola is a country located in the southwestern part of Africa. It was a Portuguese colony before it gained independence in 1975. It is bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Congo to the north and east and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. While the southern part of the country has semi arid climate, the northern part experiences a cool and dry season from May to October and a hot and rainy season from November to April.
The history of Angola dates back to the time when the Koshian hunter gatherers inhabited the region which is known as Angola today. They were replaced by the Bantu tribe which came from the north and established several political units throughout the territory. The most famous of these is the kingdom of Kongo. Angola first came in contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century and by the end of the 16th century it became a Portuguese colony and continued to be so for the next 400 years. It was in the middle of the 20th century that demands for independence began to surface. This led to the guerilla war known as the Colonial war which was fought mainly by three factions viz MPLA, FNLA and UNITA. Finally, on November 11, 1975 Angola gained independence. But this did not result in peace as there was struggle for power between MPLA and UNITA. What followed was a 27 years long civil war which ended in 2002 after a ceasefire treaty was signed between the warring factions. The exclave of Cabinda has also seen some turbulent times with separatist forces demanding independence. The issue was finally resolved through an agreement signed in 2006. Peace has finally returned to Angola and the country is recuperating from the ravages of the civil war.
Angolan economy is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. The oil sector is the most important sector in Angola. It is the second largest producer of oil in sub Saharan Africa. Angola is also known for its diamond reserves. According to The Economist (2008) 60% of Angola’s income comes from this sector. Apart from these two various other minerals such as iron ore, phosphate, gold, and granite are found in Angola. The country is also rich in forest resources, fishery and has good prospects in hydropower sector. The agricultural sector was badly affected by the civil war. It is now largely dependent on food exports. But given its climate and arability of its soil, Angola has great potential in this sector.